Research Using Bolman and Deal's Leadership Orientations Instrument


   In the 1980s, Terry Deal and I developed a survey instrument, Leadership Orientations, to measure individuals' orientations toward leading through each of the  four frames (structural, human resource, political and symbolic) in the model that we developed originally in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

   The instruments are copyrighted, and you must have explicit, written permission to use them.  We routinely grant such permission at no charge for non-commercial, research use, subject to two conditions: 

(1) The researcher agrees to provide us with a copy of any reports, publications, papers or theses resulting from the research.

(2) The researcher also promises to provide, if we request it, a copy of the data file from the research.

Further information is available in the following links:


1.  Using Leadership Orientations for Research  (This also contains links to the instruments themselves, as well as data on the internal reliability of the scales.)  


2.  List of Research Using Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Model